Workplace violence

The definition of work related violence that has received pan-European acceptance is as follows:[citation needed] “incidents where people are abused, threatened or assaulted in circumstances relating to their work, involving an explicit or implicit challenge to their safety, well-being or health”. [edit]Workplace violence and aggression Buss (1961)[citation needed] identified eight types of aggression: Verbal-passive-indirect (failure to deny false rumors about target, failure to provide information needed by target) Verbal-passive-direct ("silent treatment", failure to return communication, i.e. phone calls, e-mails) Verbal-active-indirect (spreading false rumors, belittling ideas or work) Verbal-active-direct (insulting, acting condescendingly, yelling) Physical-passive-indirect (causing others to create a delay for the target) Physical-passive-direct (reducing target's ability to contribute, i.e. scheduling them to present at the end of the day where fewer people will be attending) Physical-active-indirect (theft, destruction of property, unnecessary consumption of resources needed by the target) Physical-active-direct (physical attack, nonverbal, vulgar gestures directed at the target) In a study performed by Baron and Neuman (1996)[citation needed], researchers found pay cuts and pay freezes, use of part time employees, change in management, increased diversity, computer monitoring of employee performance, reengineering, and budget cuts were all significantly linked to increased workplace aggression. The study also showed a substantial amount of evidence linking unpleasant physical conditions (high temperature, poor lighting) and high negative affect, which facilitates workplace aggression In the United Kingdom there is a legal obligation to complete risk assessments. Regulation 3 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 states that, “every employer shall make a suitable and sufficient assessment of: The risks to the health and safety of his (or her) employees to which they are exposed whilst they are at work; and The risks to the health and safety of persons not in his employment arising out of or in connection with the conduct of him or his undertaking”. Regulation 4 then obliges the employer to apply a hierarchy of risk controls The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety lists the following higher risk occupations.[2] health care employees correctional officers social services employees teachers municipal housing inspectors public works employees retail employees